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Socials 10 Units
The Road to Confederation
The Northwest --> 1870
The Prairies 1870 - 1896
British Columbia --> 1896
Laurier & Modern Canada
Socials 9 Units
English Civil War
Geography of North America
First Peoples of North America
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Table of Contents
Class Notes (2010 - 2011) - American Revolution
- context and influences of their arrival in Canada
The Loyalists were the American colonists who stayed loyal to Britain.
The Loyalists were disliked and were abused by the American Patriots. Their houses were often burned down by, and they were often chased out of town, beaten, tarred and feathered
The Loyalists moved to Canada during the American Revolution to remain loyal to Britain.
Loyalists who left America after the Revolutionary war are thought to be founding fathers of the English speaking Canada.
“In 1789, it was decided that some form of official recognition for the Loyalists was necessary. To that end, Lord Dorchester, the Governor General of British North America decreed that any Loyalist who had moved to Canada before the end of the American Revolution would be distinguished and honoured with the addition of the letters UE at the end of their name. The letters UE stand for United Empire and remains Canada’s only hereditary title. “
Check it out at
__The United Empire Loyalists in Canadian History__
After the Revolution was over, Canada could see how effective democracy was and possibly wanted to be follow, but the Loyalists fleeing from the new American democracy were against this.The immigrating Loyalists now made up a good portion of Canada’s population and therefore had say in the decisions that were made.
Approx. 70,000 to 100,000 American loyalists went into exile and began new lives in Britain, the West Indies, the Canadian Maritimes and Central Canada after American Revolution
The Loyalist influence was part of the reason Canada was still friendly with Britain even after the independence of America.
__Loyalists and the British Connection__
Loyalists sometimes also called “Tories” or “King’s Men.”
Royal Proclamation (1763)
The Royal Proclamation (made by Britain) angered the Americans because it kept them from land.
Issued by King George III in 1763
Prevented the settlers from the Thirteen Colonies from land speculating west into the Appalachian Mountains, which was desirable land
Unfortunately, some people already had land on the other side of the line
This was made to satisfy the natives; settlers could not move into their land without permission
Anglo-Americans were very annoyed
The Anglo-Americans felt Britain wasn’t interested in helping them and did not view them as equals. They felt that Britain was more interested in helping themselves.
Royal Proclamation- never been cancelled. Lawyers argue at the Supreme Court of Canada about Native land claims must recognize the proclamation
Effects of the Royal Proclamation (Map):
(scroll down to the bottom)
Québec Act (1774)
Pushed Americans over the edge and into revolution because the British were helping out the people who they had just
as opposed to their allies (Americans).
It improved lives for the Canadiens, but angered the Americans
One of the reasons was because the Catholic Church was recognized, and the Americans were mostly Protestant
It kept the French Business laws and laws for personal law matters , but English Criminal Laws were introduced
It failed to deliver on it’s promises of providing more rights, as it kept old feudal laws, and mainly just introduced new seigneurs.
The Governor had instructions to introduce new British civil Laws and
the Catholic Church, however, information was leaked, prompting the Governor to stick to the original plan
The idea behind it was to keep Canadiens loyal to Britain, however it was one of the main causes of the civil war.
The Americans were also unnerved by the fact that Quebec didn’t have an elected assembly.
It was the trigger point for the American Revolution.
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What is the Quebec Act?
The Stamp Act (1765)
This is a direct cause, because the Americans wanted freedom from the taxation of the British. The British were controlling and taxing them even though they didn’t have representation in parliament.
The Stamp Act
was made in 1765, 2 years after official end of 7 Years War
Made Americans pay a small tax similar to today’s on many goods and government services
Tax was in the form of a stamp, that the Americans were to stick on everything
The money was supposed to pay the costs of defending the Americans.
Americans “often refused taxation without representation”
Officers sent out to enforce the tax were often attacked and humiliated.
Mobs destroyed houses of government officials.
Many politicians, and English people sided with American citizens
Few officials were brave enough to force people to use the stamps
Overall, it was a disaster and was repealed a year later (1766)
However, new taxes were brought in on tea and other goods imported by the colonists
Most of these taxes were abolished, except for the tax on tea.
For more information go to:
PBS video on “The Stamp Act”
World Book: Stamp Act
Treaty of Paris (1763)
Lessened the need of British military might, created debt for Britain, and gave the Americans a sense of
This treaty ended the 7 years’ War (also known as the French/Indian War)
Signed February 10, 1763 by France, Britain and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. This, however, was after 3 years of negotiations.
The treaty did not involve Prussia or Austria, who signed a separate
Treaty of Hubertusburg
In the treaty, Britain took land - Cape Breton Island, Canada, and Florida - from Spain.
Spain got Louisiana and New Orleans.
France kept the islands of
ierre and Miquelon and got a few sugar islands in the Caribbean.
The French people got th
eir land taken:
__The many Treaties of Paris__
Text of the Treaty of Paris:
Intendant Francois Bigot & Vaudreuil, governor of New France, were removed from their positions and placed under arrest.
A timeline of the events of the Treaty of Paris:
is an adorable video made by little children about the Treaty of Paris. It is worth watching! Press next when finished watching the video to see the next scene. Many parts of this chapter are described.
from the cute children.
Pontiac tried to unite the tribes to fight the British but couldn’t gain enough military support from the French. Even though they lost, it forced Britain to rethink their policies in America. Then to get the First Nations to stop protesting, and to keep them happy, Britain reserved land for them (the Ohio Valley).
The natives were given blankets with Smallpox so to prevent rebellion
Natives were also known as “Indians”
The French traders urged the Natives to resist the British ‘cause the French and Natives both didn’t like the British
General knowledge on the subject. (Which is inaccessible)
__World Book Online, anyone?__
Chief Pontiac was known for his role in the Pontiac’s Rebellion in the years of 1763 to 1766
__Wikipedia: Chief Pontiac (not the car)__
The Indians were in a conflict with the British against the occupation of the Great Lakes
Pontiac tried to unite all the tribes
Pontiac was defeated
Sir (Ray?) William Johnson split Pontiac’s supporters
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The Beginning of the Revolution
Originally, British and American people had a close relationship and relied on each other for trading.
"Great Britain is the wise, experienced father. America is the brave, bright-eyed son and big brother to many modern societies of our world right now."
<< Iris Hung
British government tried to tax Americans without their consent and Americans refused; The British considered this an insult
In 1770, British soldiers fired their muskets after one of their soldiers was clubbed into a mob of Boston protesters, killing several people. This is known as the "Boston Massacre".
In 1773, about 50 “Sons of Liberty” dressed as Mohawks threw tea into the harbour to protest the new Tea Act. It’s now known as The Boston Tea Party.
At the Continental Congress in 1774, the American colonies decided they needed to work together in spite of what the British King wanted.
The British and Americans confronted each other in Lexington Green, Massachusetts. With the tension rising, an excited soldier fired a “shot heard around the world” and the British opened fire at the Americans. Americans were driven away, but few were killed or injured. On their way back to Boston, the British were attacked by the Americans and many were killed. And that started the American Revolution.
With the help of colonial leaders, the revolutionaries put together a sizable force.
George Washington was later made commander of the Continental Army.
Congressmen first looked top defend the northern borders. They didn't want the British to 'sneak in' from Canada and they thought the Canadian colonies would join them. They tried and failed to seize Quebec, which helped convince Canadians to stay with the British.
The Boston Tea Party (December 16th, 1773)
First rebellious act against the British
British government put taxes on goods that Americans wanted to buy (most notably, tea)
No American representative in the British government
Americans mad that they were being taxed by the government but had no say.
"No taxation without representation!"
Merchants selling goods lost profit due to taxes
Americans began purchasing smuggled goods, much cheaper
King George III tried to prevent smuggling by giving the
East India Company
a monopoly on tea.
Sold goods at a lower price than the goods smuggled, but with a secret tax
Colonists found out that goods were coming from king, now even more angry
Sons of Liberty
, group of people rebelling against king, dressed up as
, went onto ships in the Boston harbour
Took dozens of boxes of tea and dumped them into water
"Friends! Brethren! Countrymen! That worst of plagues, the detested tea, shipped for this port by the East India Company, has now arrived in the harbour.”
(Who was this quote by)
British government became very angry
Made even stricter laws for the Massachusetts colony
The Intolerable Acts
Boston harbour was to be closed until the tea lost was paid back
Led to the American Revolution
Youtube: The Boston Tea Party
Zack and Cody Boston Tea Party episode:
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Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence
Written mostly by Thomas Jefferson in 1776.
The war didn't end for another 7 years (1883)
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