Loyalists - context and influences of their arrival in Canada

  • The Loyalists were the American colonists who stayed loyal to Britain.
  • The Loyalists were disliked and were abused by the American Patriots. Their houses were often burned down by, and they were often chased out of town, beaten, tarred and feathered
  • The Loyalists moved to Canada during the American Revolution to remain loyal to Britain.
  • Loyalists who left America after the Revolutionary war are thought to be founding fathers of the English speaking Canada.
  • “In 1789, it was decided that some form of official recognition for the Loyalists was necessary. To that end, Lord Dorchester, the Governor General of British North America decreed that any Loyalist who had moved to Canada before the end of the American Revolution would be distinguished and honoured with the addition of the letters UE at the end of their name. The letters UE stand for United Empire and remains Canada’s only hereditary title. “

Check it out at __The United Empire Loyalists in Canadian History__
  • After the Revolution was over, Canada could see how effective democracy was and possibly wanted to be follow, but the Loyalists fleeing from the new American democracy were against this.The immigrating Loyalists now made up a good portion of Canada’s population and therefore had say in the decisions that were made.
  • Approx. 70,000 to 100,000 American loyalists went into exile and began new lives in Britain, the West Indies, the Canadian Maritimes and Central Canada after American Revolution
  • The Loyalist influence was part of the reason Canada was still friendly with Britain even after the independence of America.
  • Loyalists sometimes also called “Tories” or “King’s Men.”

Royal Proclamation (1763)

The Royal Proclamation (made by Britain) angered the Americans because it kept them from land.
  • Issued by King George III in 1763
  • Prevented the settlers from the Thirteen Colonies from land speculating west into the Appalachian Mountains, which was desirable land
  • Unfortunately, some people already had land on the other side of the line
  • This was made to satisfy the natives; settlers could not move into their land without permission
  • Anglo-Americans were very annoyed
  • The Anglo-Americans felt Britain wasn’t interested in helping them and did not view them as equals. They felt that Britain was more interested in helping themselves.
  • Royal Proclamation- never been cancelled. Lawyers argue at the Supreme Court of Canada about Native land claims must recognize the proclamation
  • Effects of the Royal Proclamation (Map): Here
  • Royal Proclamation (scroll down to the bottom)

Québec Act (1774)
Pushed Americans over the edge and into revolution because the British were helping out the people who they had just conquered as opposed to their allies (Americans).
  • It improved lives for the Canadiens, but angered the Americans
  • One of the reasons was because the Catholic Church was recognized, and the Americans were mostly Protestant
  • It kept the French Business laws and laws for personal law matters , but English Criminal Laws were introduced
  • It failed to deliver on it’s promises of providing more rights, as it kept old feudal laws, and mainly just introduced new seigneurs.
  • The Governor had instructions to introduce new British civil Laws and suppress the Catholic Church, however, information was leaked, prompting the Governor to stick to the original plan
  • The idea behind it was to keep Canadiens loyal to Britain, however it was one of the main causes of the civil war.
  • The Americans were also unnerved by the fact that Quebec didn’t have an elected assembly.
  • It was the trigger point for the American Revolution.
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  • Quebec Act
  • What is the Quebec Act?

The Stamp Act (1765)
This is a direct cause, because the Americans wanted freedom from the taxation of the British. The British were controlling and taxing them even though they didn’t have representation in parliament.
  • The Stamp Act was made in 1765, 2 years after official end of 7 Years War
  • Made Americans pay a small tax similar to today’s on many goods and government services
  • Tax was in the form of a stamp, that the Americans were to stick on everything
  • The money was supposed to pay the costs of defending the Americans.
  • Americans “often refused taxation without representation”
  • Officers sent out to enforce the tax were often attacked and humiliated.
  • Mobs destroyed houses of government officials.
  • Many politicians, and English people sided with American citizens
  • Few officials were brave enough to force people to use the stamps
  • Overall, it was a disaster and was repealed a year later (1766)
  • However, new taxes were brought in on tea and other goods imported by the colonists
  • Most of these taxes were abolished, except for the tax on tea.
  • For more information go to:

Indirect Causes

Treaty of Paris (1763)
Lessened the need of British military might, created debt for Britain, and gave the Americans a sense of superiority.

Native Resistance
Pontiac tried to unite the tribes to fight the British but couldn’t gain enough military support from the French. Even though they lost, it forced Britain to rethink their policies in America. Then to get the First Nations to stop protesting, and to keep them happy, Britain reserved land for them (the Ohio Valley).
  • The natives were given blankets with Smallpox so to prevent rebellion
  • Natives were also known as “Indians”
  • The French traders urged the Natives to resist the British ‘cause the French and Natives both didn’t like the British
  • General knowledge on the subject. (Which is inaccessible) __World Book Online, anyone?__

  • Chief Pontiac was known for his role in the Pontiac’s Rebellion in the years of 1763 to 1766
  • __Wikipedia: Chief Pontiac (not the car)__
  • The Indians were in a conflict with the British against the occupation of the Great Lakes
  • Pontiac tried to unite all the tribes
  • Pontiac was defeated
  • Sir (Ray?) William Johnson split Pontiac’s supporters
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The Beginning of the Revolution

Originally, British and American people had a close relationship and relied on each other for trading.
"Great Britain is the wise, experienced father. America is the brave, bright-eyed son and big brother to many modern societies of our world right now." << Iris Hung

British government tried to tax Americans without their consent and Americans refused; The British considered this an insult
In 1770, British soldiers fired their muskets after one of their soldiers was clubbed into a mob of Boston protesters, killing several people. This is known as the "Boston Massacre".
In 1773, about 50 “Sons of Liberty” dressed as Mohawks threw tea into the harbour to protest the new Tea Act. It’s now known as The Boston Tea Party.
At the Continental Congress in 1774, the American colonies decided they needed to work together in spite of what the British King wanted.
The British and Americans confronted each other in Lexington Green, Massachusetts. With the tension rising, an excited soldier fired a “shot heard around the world” and the British opened fire at the Americans. Americans were driven away, but few were killed or injured. On their way back to Boston, the British were attacked by the Americans and many were killed. And that started the American Revolution.
With the help of colonial leaders, the revolutionaries put together a sizable force.
George Washington was later made commander of the Continental Army.
Congressmen first looked top defend the northern borders. They didn't want the British to 'sneak in' from Canada and they thought the Canadian colonies would join them. They tried and failed to seize Quebec, which helped convince Canadians to stay with the British.

The Boston Tea Party (December 16th, 1773)
  • First rebellious act against the British
  • British government put taxes on goods that Americans wanted to buy (most notably, tea)
  • No American representative in the British government
  • Americans mad that they were being taxed by the government but had no say. "No taxation without representation!"
  • Merchants selling goods lost profit due to taxes
  • Americans began purchasing smuggled goods, much cheaper
  • King George III tried to prevent smuggling by giving the East India Company a monopoly on tea.. Sold goods at a lower price than the goods smuggled, but with a secret tax
  • Colonists found out that goods were coming from king, now even more angry
  • Sons of Liberty, group of people rebelling against king, dressed up as Mohawks , went onto ships in the Boston harbour
  • Took dozens of boxes of tea and dumped them into water
    • "Friends! Brethren! Countrymen! That worst of plagues, the detested tea, shipped for this port by the East India Company, has now arrived in the harbour.” (Who was this quote by)
  • British government became very angry
    • Made even stricter laws for the Massachusetts colony
    • Created The Intolerable Acts
    • Boston harbour was to be closed until the tea lost was paid back
  • Led to the American Revolution

Youtube: The Boston Tea Party
Zack and Cody Boston Tea Party episode:
__http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JxRNZ5Ujdgw__ (part 1)
__http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xfHc8CyfXnc&feature=related__ (part 2)
__http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xi4RvTh1d7k&feature=related__ (part 3)
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Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence
  • Written mostly by Thomas Jefferson in 1776.
  • The war didn't end for another 7 years (1883)